Concepts and History
The idea of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) emerged in Japan in mid-1971 as a proposal by Seiichi Nakajima for the evolution of the Preventive Maintenance concept for a greater contribution to the Production System as a whole, from the focus on Equipment Efficiency.
At that time (1945 - 1970) the Japanese, in recovery, were forced to meet all their domestic market needs as a result of several international embargoes and adapted resources, having no other option than theories and concepts of Administration and Quality, very spread in the USA, due to its reality of high volumes, high diversity and mix of products and low capacity vis-à-vis the market.
The Toyota Production System (TPS) or Lean Manufacturing, came as a precursor to this change and the concept of Just in Time (JIT) opened a new horizon in the organization of the Supply Chain, bringing Efficiency as the basis of systemic thinking.
From this atmosphere of Waste Zero Inside, TPM emerged as a natural evolution of the thematic production of the Effective System. Among all the STP techniques, Just in Time and 5Ss are the disciplines that most contributed to the definition of the TPM pillars.
The 8 Pillars of TPM
With a focus on Effectiveness through Safety, Loss Reduction, Resource Optimization, Productivity Increase and Quality Assurance, in addition to the 5Ss foundation, TPM generates a sense of responsibility in the entire team, from operators to high Management and it is up to business managers to be the examples in the cultural change that Lean Manufacturing requires.
- Autonomous Maintenance
- Focused Improvement
- Planned Maintenance
- Training and Education
- Quality Maintenance
- Initial Control
- Safety, Health and Environment
- TPM in the Admin
It seeks the integration and collaboration of Operators in the daily routine of Maintenance, giving them autonomy to carry out preventive tasks in their work equipment, such as:
This preventive work, as long as it is well recorded and analyzed, allows the identification of trends and failures in time to avoid an unplanned stop.
It is the pillar of Continuous Improvement that uses data and maintenance history to define actions to improve Performance and Equipment Performance.
For this, it is essential that there is a culture that systematically seeks the evolution of Processes with a focus on increasing Efficiency. Approaches like Kaizen are very effective.
Prevention is better and cheaper than correction! This is the basis of Maintenance Planning thinking. Preventive and Corrective Maintenance were the main types of maintenance at that time and today we have Predictive, Prescriptive and Planned Corrective as an evolution of the tools and technologies that permeate maintenance.
Regardless of the different types of Planned Maintenance that exist or may exist, the idea of Prevention remains intact: Guarantee the Organization's Results through the Availability of Equipment.
Currently, there are excellent Maintenance Management and Planning tools that enable greater strategic results for the Maintenance area.
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Training and Education
As with all Lean philosophy, TPM also practices people development and discipline as a foundation for success. People are the basis of any business, whether as a Customer or Supplier, and keeping them motivated, involved and engaged is essential for the processes to function fully.
Training operators and developing them in Autonomous Maintenance will create a strong bond with respect to the business objectives and Customer success;
Training and developing maintenance personnel will improve maintenance techniques and plans;
Train Managers to be mentors and responsible for keeping the TPM culture in progress;
Creating a knowledge base based on Maintenance data is essential to optimize knowledge sharing;
It is the approach of Total Quality in the scope of Maintenance, applying tools for problem solving and continuous improvement such as MASP, PDCA, Ishikawa... allow the reduction of errors, failures and waste. In addition to eliminating waste, reducing the variability of mapped parameters that directly interferes with the availability of equipment is essential and this is where Six Sigma tools come in.
The integrated action between Maintenance and Industrial Engineering is very important to start maintenance planning while still in the equipment design phase. The knowledge base already acquired by TPM is a source for the Initial Control of new equipment.
Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) is an excellent example of how to apply Initial Control to new equipment.
It consists of applying all the concepts of Lean Manufacturing and TPM in the administrative sphere. Applying the concepts for the elimination of waste, engagement, quality and efficiency. Agile Management concepts have a strong connection with this pillar.
Safety, Hygiene and Environment
Safety first is a pillar of TPM. Maintenance plans must start with the Preliminary Risk Analysis, Work Permit and Work Release, to ensure that everyone involved is safe with risks mapped and mitigated.
Analysis of Environmental Aspects and Impacts generate awareness and concern for the environment during maintenance work, from acquisition to disposal and destination of inputs and their waste.
A healthy and comfortable work environment increases employee productivity, well-being and engagement.